- Bursitis – Inflammation of the shoulder bursa. Bursa are small, fluid-filled sacs that help reduce friction in the shoulder joint. There are several bursae within your shoulder. Shoulder bursitis can develop as a result of a direct blow or fall, repeated trauma due to overuse of the shoulder joint, or infection. In middle-aged and other athletes, it could be caused by calcium deposits that irritate or intrude into the sacs.
- Tendinitis – Rotator cuff tendinitis is the mildest form of an overuse injury in the shoulder. Inflammation develops in one or more of the tendons that connect the four rotator cuff muscles to bones. It can happen because of overuse and repetitive motion (throwing a baseball, for example), age, injury, or all three.
- Impingement Syndrome – This condition occurs when a shoulder muscle, tendon, and bursa sac rub against the shoulder blade. It often develops simultaneously with shoulder tendinitis. In younger athletes this is usually due to an unstable shoulder blade, which is often a result of poor posture.
- Bone spur – A bone spur in the shoulder is extra bone tissue that rubs against a tendon, nerve, or other bone. The main cause of bone spurs is the joint damage associated with osteoarthritis or inflammation such as tendinitis. It is possible to have a bone spur for years without symptoms, but when they do appear, you’ll know it because of the pain and limited range of motion in your shoulder.
- Partial tear – With friction, overuse, or an injury, the tendon that connects one of the four rotator cuff muscles begins to develop small, micro-tears. It damages the tendon, but does not completely sever it. With rest and treatment, they heal. Without attention, they can develop into full-thickness tears.
- Full-thickness tear – This type of tear is also called a complete tear. It separates all of the tendon from the bone. The same things that cause rotator cuff tendinitis—injury, overuse, throwing, reaching, blows and falls—can lead to tears. But the more common cause is a gradual weakening of the tendon from years of use. People over 40 are particularly susceptible. Overuse plus age (over 40) is a perfect formula for shoulder problems. Repeated steroid (cortisone) injections and even daily routines such as gardening or working around the house increase the potential for wear, degeneration, and tearing.
- Glenohumeral joint instability or shoulder dislocation – Shoulder instability refers to the inability to maintain the humeral head in the glenoid fossa. Instability may arise from a single traumatic episode in which an injury occurs to the bone, rotator cuff, labrum, capsule, and/or a combination of ligaments. If a glenohumeral joint has been unstable on multiple occasions, the instability is recurrent. Recurrent instability may consist of repeated glenohumeral dislocations, subluxations, or both.
- Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder syndrome (FSS) – Adhesive capsulitis, commonly referred to as frozen shoulder, is characterized by stiffness, pain, and limited active and passive glenohumeral range of motion in your shoulder joint. Signs and symptoms typically begin gradually, worsen over time and then resolve, usually within one to three years. Pain is usually constant, worse at night, and with cold weather. Adhesive capsulitis is often more prevalent in women, individuals 40-65 years old, in people who have diabetes or cardiovascular disease, and in people who have kept their arm immobilized for a long period of time.
- Shoulder sprain/strain – A shoulder sprain involves damage to the ligaments (the bands of tissue that connect bones together) and strains involve injuries to muscles and tendons. Common causes are acute trauma from contact sports such as wrestling or football, a sudden twist of the arm, or a fall on an outstretched arm.
- SLAP tears – SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior and Posterior) tears are injuries to the labrum of the shoulder, which is the ring of cartilage that surrounds the socket of the shoulder joint. A SLAP tear may develop from a motor vehicle accident, a fall onto an outstretched arm, forceful pulling on the arm, such as when trying to catch a heavy object, or shoulder dislocation. Throwing athletes and weightlifters who participate in repetitive overhead sports can experience labrum tears from overuse, but SLAP tears are typically the result of the labrum wearing down slowly over time.
- muscle strengthening and correct form for weightlifting
- core stability
- avoid reaches above shoulder and reduce any excessive overhead reaching
- eliminate heavy lifting and raising arms above shoulders
- lift items close to the body
- lift weights at or below the shoulder level
- practice good posture and ergonomics in the workplace
- limit the amount of time that you restrict arm movement with a sling, as you can develop frozen shoulder (stiff shoulder joint)
Brown, Jim. “Beginner's Guide to Shoulder Pain.” EXOS™. 21 January 2009. http://www.coreperformance.com/knowledge/injury-pain/shoulder-pain.html.
"SLAP Tears." OrthoInfo. orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/slap-tears/
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